金城湯池

原: 武信君 蒯通傳, 史記, 後漢書 等等
金城湯池 (금성탕지,jīnchéng tāngchí,きんじょうとうち), metal fortress boiling pond
A word to refer to an impregnable place or thing

Emperor Si-hwang (始皇帝) of Jin (秦) had unified the kingdoms, but it started to decline soon after his death. The families (宗室) and those who had served (遺臣) in old kingdoms rose up to overthrow Jin. Many claimed to be a king in their own right, and the governing system of Jin (郡縣制) was being dismantled completely. It was during this time a man named Mu-sin (武信) had subdued the old territory of Jo (趙) and people called him Lord Mu-sin (武信君). Koi-tong (蒯通), an unappointed advisor (論客), saw all this take place, and told Seo-gong (徐公), a ruler (縣令) of Beom-yang (范陽), that the disgruntled people under his rule are about to rise up against him. Seo-gong asked what Koi-tong had in mind, and Koi-tong said that he will go to Lord Mu-sin and convince him that he should make a good example of how someone who surrenders to him would be treated by accepting your surrender, and treating you with extremely generosity. The logic was that if Seo-gong surrendered and he was treated poorly, other fortresses with become even more impregnable (金城湯池) in defending their places. So, that way, Lord Mu-sin will not suffer loss of war, and others will see how you were treated, and instead of suffering great losses themselves, they will find that it’s better to surrender. Seo-gong sent Koi-tong to Lord Mu-shin.  Lord-Mushin, amazed at the wisdom of Koi-tong, invited Seo-gong with the utmost respect and had him go abroad to tell people of this. People of Beom-yang was spared from a war, so they praised Seo-gong, and other regions hearing of this also surrendered to Lord Mu-sin.  It is said that over 30 fortresses had surrendered in the region of Hwa-buk (華北) alone.

良禽擇木

原: 春秋左傳, 哀公, 哀公十一年/2 中
曰,鳥則擇木,木豈能擇鳥

良禽擇木(양금택목,liáng qín zé mù,りょうきんたくぼく), good bird chooses tree

A wise person chooses a person or a place that recognizes and will help to cultivate his talents.

While Gong-ja (孔子) was staying in the country of Wi (衛) Gongmun-ja (孔文子, 孔圉) came to inquire him about his plans to attack Dae-suk-jil (大叔疾), but Gong-ja replied that he has learned about ancestral rites, but he know nothing about waging wars. Immediately, after, he told his disciples to get ready to leave Wi soon. Hearing about this, Gongmun-ja quickly came back to explain he didn’t have other ulterior motives and pleaded him to stay. At this, Gong-ja decided to stay longer, but a person from the country of Noh (魯) came to implore him to come back and he went back to his home country.

Before taking on a job to work for any company, or stay at any place, it’s a worthwhile effort to consider what type of place it is. If it’s a rotten tree that will fall by itself soon, or if it’s a small branch that won’t be able to withstand the weight of your nest, then it’s better not to settle down from the start.

繪事後素

原: 論語, 八佾/8
子夏問曰:「『巧笑倩兮,美目盼兮,素以為絢兮。』何謂也?」子曰:「繪事後素。」曰:「禮後乎?」子曰:「起予者商也!始可與言詩已矣。」

繪事後素(회사후소,huìshìhòusù,かいじこうそ), painting work after white
Horse before carriage. Essentials or canvas come first before formalities or decorations.

This is from a passage where Gong-ja reminds his disciples that a person ought to develop his character first before adding on other stylistic things (文飾).

Jaha (字: 子夏, 卜商) asked, “What does this text mean? ‘Dimples from a beautiful smile are pretty, pupils from beautiful eyes are clear. It is like painting with white silk (素以爲絢).'” Gong-ja (孔子) replied, “You paint after you prepare a white canvas (繪事後素).” To which, Jaha asked again, “So etiquettes/formalities (禮) come after?” And at this, Gong-ja expressed his great pleasure with Jaha’s reply and said that he is now ready to discuss poetry (詩).

Jaha realized that formalities (depicted as a painting (絢)) are expressions of the heart (depicted as a white canvas (素)), and the principle of poetry is the same. This is why Gong-ja praised his reply, and considered him ready to discuss poetry.

The mainstream interpretation of this was reinforced by Zhu-ja (朱子, 朱熹, 1130-1200) of Song (宋) dynasty, but a different interpretation was given earlier during later Han (漢) dynasty by Jung Hyeon (鄭玄, 127-200) who read this as painting white (素) after painting with colors (繪), so as to filling in the spaces between colors with white.

愚公移山

原: 列子, 湯問

太形、王屋二山,方七百里,高万仞。本在冀州之南,河阳之北。北山愚公者,年且九十,面山而居。

愚公移山(우공이산,yúgōngyíshān,ぐこういざん), Wu-gong moves mountains
No matter how difficult, it can be done with persistence and diligence

There lived a 90-year old man named Wu-gong (愚公) whose residence was between two tall mountains, Mt. Tae-haeng (太行山) and Mt. Wang-ok (王玉山). He’s always found it difficult to travel to and fro other towns, so he gathered his family members to discuss creating a level road all the way to Ye-ju (豫州) and south of Han-su (漢水). However, his wife objected saying how an old man like him would be able to remove the dirt from the mountain and where to put the dirt, and to this, he replied nonchalantly, “I’ll just dump it in the Bohai Sea (渤海).”

Soon, Wu-gong with his three sons and grandsons started working. It was no easy task, since the travel to dump dirt at Bohai Sea would take a year. One day, an old friend Ji-su (智叟) tried to persuade Wu-gong to stop the work because of the age. To this, Wu-gong simply replied that his sons will carry out the work, and then his grandsons, and then later generations will continue the work until two mountains disappear. Ji-su went away shaking his head, however, the mountain spirit (蛇神) guarding those two mountains were shocked to hear this, and reported this to the Jade Emperor (玉皇上帝, aka God of Heaven). He was moved by Wu-gong’s persistence, and ordered to relocate Mt. Tae-haeng to Sak-dong (朔東) and Mt. Wang-ok to Ong-nam (雍南).

(蛇足: This is why they say there used to be two mountains in Gi-ju (冀州) but nowadays, there is not even a small hill there.)

一以貫之

原: 論語, 里仁/15
子曰:「參乎!吾道一以貫之。」曾子曰:「唯。」子出。門人問曰:「何謂也?」曾子曰:「夫子之道,忠恕而已矣。」

原: 論語, 衛靈公/3
子曰:「賜也,女以予為多學而識之者與?」對曰:「然,非與?」曰:「非也,予一以貫之。」

一以貫之(일이관지), one [/with] through/[threaded] — understanding many through one or a grand principle

From Yi-in (里仁): Gong-ja (孔子) said, “Sam (參, 曾子), my way is through only one thing.” To which, Jeung-ja  (曾子) replied, “Yes, indeed.” After Gong-ja left the room, literati (門人) asked Sam what the master meant. Jeung-ja answered, “My master’s way is only of faithfulness (忠, as being wholehearted) and compassion (恕, as in compassionate understanding of others).”

From Wi-ryeong-gong (衛靈公): Gong-ja asked Sa (賜, 字: 子貢), “Do you see me as someone learned in many things, and be able to recall them well?” Ja-gong (子貢) replied, “Yes, are you not?” Gong-ja answered, “No, I merely see all things through one.”

It’s debatable as to what this penetrating through one thing (一以貫之) may truly mean, but one way to understand this is that, as already mentioned, faithfulness and compassion is a mere way to achieve this, and looking through the greater context it’s only natural to interpret humaneness (仁) as the way (道) through which all things can be reflected on.

濫觴

原:  孔子家語, 三恕/10

子曰: 由!是倨倨者何也?夫江始出於岷山,其源可以濫觴 …

濫觴 (남상), [enough to] run over a small glass [for liquor]

A warning to disciple, Jaro (仲由, 字: 子路), who once showed off a fancy dress. Gong-ja (孔子) reminded him that the source of a great river Yang-ja (楊子江) is no more than enough to run over a small glass.

과수화상병 (果樹火傷病)

fire blight is a destructive bacterial disease (Erwinia amylovora) that is very contagious

果: 실과 과
樹: 나무 수
火: 불 화
傷: 다칠 상
病: 병 병

日: かじゅかしょうびょう (kajyu kashōbyō)
中: 果树 [guǒshù] 火伤 [huǒshāng] 病 [bìng]

호가 (呼價)

호가 (호까)
呼: 부를 호
價: 값 가
팔거나 사려고 물건(物件)의 값을 얼마라고 부름

日: よびね [yobine], 中: 叫价 [jiàojià]

屌丝 (diàosī; 댜오쓰)

屌丝

屌: 자지 조
絲 (丝): 실 사

중국어 [신조어] 돈도 없고, 외모도 별로고, 집안 배경도 없고, 미래도 어두운 사람
실패자, 찌질이