硏磨

Almost everyone around the world have been quarantined at home, and it’s a perfect time to brush up your skillsets. Let’s take a look at this word, 硏磨 (to grind, study, or research). 硏 refers to an inkstone, which is a flat stone. What do you normally do with an inkstone? It’s used to grind ink. Once ink is ground and contained, you would write with it. Writing is associated with studying and researching, therefore you have a process from grinding of ink to writing, where you would be studying or researching, so we have all of these meanings associated with this character 硏.

With 磨 (to grind or rub), we have a compound of 麻 (hemp) and 石 (stone). So, the character was for an act of using a stone-based tool to soften or decorticate hemp stalks. It was done by either grinding or crushing the stalks, so we have both of these meanings associated with this character. When an object is either grinded or pounded, it wears out and it can even disappear eventually. So, 磨 can also mean suffering, being worn down, or disappearing after being worn down.

Combining above meanings we can think of the meaning of 硏磨 as an act of studying and researching until the subject (who would be studying and researching) would disappear from being worn down so much. We can associate a degree of pain with such an act, and there is a sense of constant repetition. Therefore, there can’t be 硏磨 without difficulties and repetition. Such process is needed in order to improve our skills and talents.

Even in English, the informal use of the word grind is associated with working or studying laboriously. So, it’s interesting to see that we have such commonalities both in the East and the West.

Source: https://www.donga.com/news/List/Series_70070000000757/article/all/20060104/8262972/1
Update and English translation by Michael Han (https://michaelhan.net)

行百里者半九十

Many people set New Year’s resolutions, but it isn’t easy to follow them through ’til the end of the year. Why is that? It’s because people aren’t determined enough to put that much effort into it. Why do so many find it difficult to put that effort in? It’s because they are anxious to reach it quickly. When we set out to achieve something in the future, it’s important to be diligent and persistent in order to reach a completion.

There’s a phrase 行百里者半九十. 行 originally meant an intersection, or a junction of two roads. This is where we get the meanings such as procession, or degree of relationship, as in 行列. There were many merchants at such junctions, so we also have words like market, or merchant. 銀行 (bank) consists of the word 銀 (silver), so it originally meant a place where you bought and sold silver. In the past, silver was used as a form of common currency. 洋行 means a Western-style store, or a new type of merchant. Many people walk about a junction on a road, so we also have meaning of going or moving around. In 行百里者半九十, 行 means going. Therefore 行百里者 means a person going one hundred ri.

半 originally meant half, but here it means considering as half. We just have number 九十 for a numeric value of ninety, but because of the word 百里 (hundred ri), we can assume the unit of ri here as in ninety ri. So, 半九十 would mean consider as ninety ri as half.

Synthesizing these together, we have, “a person set out to travel one hundred ri goes ninety ri and considers it a half of his journey.” With such attitude, the person will continue on with persistence, and will not be so anxious to get to the destination quickly.

A turtle has short legs, so it can only travel at a very slow pace, but don’t forget that it can also travel 1,000 ri.

Note: ri is roughly about an one-third of an English mile.

Original: https://www.donga.com/news/Culture/article/all/20040104/8017106/1
English translation by Michael Han (https://michaelhan.net)

일제시대(日帝時代)를 왜정시대(倭政時代)

출처:
안 규호, 2009. 일제시대(日帝時代)를 왜정시대(倭政時代). 시사포커스. Available at: http://www.sisafocus.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=37645 [Accessed March 29, 2021].

사실 대한민국이 그동안 친일파를 청산하지 못해 여러 가지 문제점이 노출됐다. 논란의 여지가 있을 수는 있겠지만 대체적으로 부인을 할 수 없는 사실이다.

많은 사람들에게 존경을 받던 여성박사 1호인 김활란, 시인 모윤숙과 서정주 애국가 작곡가인 홍난파 등은 친일 행각이 알려지면서 많은 국민들이 적지 않은 놀라움과 불쾌감을 가졌던 기억도 있다.

대한민국도 해방 이후에 친일파 청산의 노력을 하지 않았던 것은 아니다. 1948년 ‘반민족행위처벌법’을 제정해서 의욕적으로 친일파청산을 하려는 노력을 보이기도 했다. 그러나 그것이 흐지부지 되면서 친일부역자가 단죄는커녕 정치권력 뿐 아니라 사회 각계에서 영향력을 행사하는 기행적인 역사를 연출한 것이 우리의 역사였다.

세월의 흐름만큼 많은 국민들이 친일파에 대한 기억을 점점 잃어가고 있다. ‘글로벌시대’ ‘지구촌은 한 가족’이라는 구호가 나오고 있는 요즘 친일문제는 ‘구태의연’하게 들릴 수도 있을 것이다. 그러나 여기서 국민들이 간과해서는 안 되는 중요한 것 중의 하나가 바로 친일파 청산 없이는 우리의 역사가 한 발짝도 앞으로 나갈 수 없다는 것이다.

개인적으로 친일청산의 한 방법을 제안하고자 한다.우리나라의 많은 초·중·고등학교 교과서 심지어는 대학서적에서도 일제시대라는 표현을 쓴다. 이는 정말 잘못된 표현이다. 일제시대(日帝時代)라는 말을 풀이해 보면 한자 뜻 그대로 일본제국주의시대라는 이야기인데 이는 일본의 제국주의 부활을 꿈꾸는 이들이나 부를법한 이야기이다. 치욕의 역사인 왜정시대(倭政時代)를 일제시대(日帝時代)라고 표기를 하고 부르는 것은 적당히 않다.

일제 침략기에 고생을 했던 많은 어르신들은 아직도 왜정시대(倭政時代)라는 표현을 쓴다. 왜정시대倭政時代) 즉 우리나라를 침략했던 왜나라 오랑캐들이 정치를 하던 시대라는 뜻이다.
이젠 마무리 정리하자.

전국민이 이번 기회에 사소한 것처럼 보이지만 가장 중요한 문제인 일제시대(日帝時代)를 왜정시대(倭政時代)로 바꾸는 운동에 적극적으로 동참했으면 한다.

내년 광복절에는 모든 항일순국선열들에게 떳떳한 날이 되었으면 하는 큰 소망을 해본다.

井中之蛙

原: 秋水/2 中 + 後漢書, 馬援傳, 等等
井蛙不可以語於海者,拘於虛也

同: 井蛙, 井底蛙, 埳井之蛙

井中之蛙 (정중지와, jǐngzhōng zhī wā, かんせいのあ) well / in / [of] / frog
A frog in a well. Referring to someone with a very narrow view of things due to ignorance. It comes from the saying, “a frog in a well doesn’t know about the great sea (井中之蛙 不知大海).”

This was near the end of Sin dynasty (新) which appeared after the end of Western Han dynasty (前漢). Wehyo (隗囂) of Nong-seo (隴西) maintained his relationship with King Gwangmu (光武帝) as an ally, but as King Gwangmu became more powerful he felt uneasy, and tried to form an alliance with Gongsonsul (公孫述) of Chok (蜀). Around that time, Gongsonsul had founded a country called Seong (成), and was calling himself an emperor (皇帝). The land of Chok was rich in natural resources, and the terrain made it a natural stronghold, so it was perfect to build up his power.

Wehyo decided to send Mawon (馬援) to Chok in order to find more about Gongsonsul. Mawon was born in Mureung (武陵) and he had moved to Nong-seo to avoid troubles after Wangmang (王莽) had died. After the move, he had accepted the request to become an advisor to Wehyo. Mawon was also a childhood friend of Gongsonsul.

Mawon eagerly looked forward to being received with a warm welcome by Gongsonsul, but he was met with a cold reception. Gongsonsul had been a king for four years, and he assumed a haughty attitude at the top of the stairs, and tried to give Mawon a government position. Of course, Mawon quickly made an exit and returned.
“The supremacy under heaven is yet to be decided, but instead of showing utmost courtesy to a capable person for advice on running a country, he only shows his haughtiness. One cannot discuss affairs of this world with such a person. He is a prideful frog inside of a well. It’s better to look to the East for going forward,” said Mawon to his entourage.

Mawon also said the same thing to Wehyo, and added, “He is merely a frog inside a well. You do not need to deal with him. I think it will be better to be more expectant from Han (漢).” With this, Wehyo gave up trying to form an alliance with Gongsonsul, and instead formed an amiable relationship with King Gwangmu, who would be the progenitor of the Eastern Han (aka Later Han.)

The expression “a frog in a well” was already widely in use before Mawon had used it. There is this narrative in Jang-ja (莊子): “A frog in a well can’t talk about the sea because it is inherently limited by the place (墟) it lives in. A summer bug wouldn’t be able to talk about ice because it only knows about the season of summer. You can’t talk about the Way (道) with someone who only knows about one thing because he is restricted by the limitation of his own learning.

蝸牛角上爭

原: 則陽/4 中
「有國於蝸之左角者曰觸氏,有國於蝸之右角者曰蠻氏,時相與爭地而戰,伏尸數萬,逐北旬有五日而後反。」

蝸牛角上爭 (와우각상쟁, wōniú jiǎo shàng zhēng, 蝸牛角上の争い (かぎゅうかくじょうのあらそい)) snail / horn / above / fight

A fight of snail horns. A useless fight or strife in a small world.

During the Warring States period, feudal lords battled each other year after year for hegemony. The story comes out during such tumultuous time.

King Hye (惠王) of Wi (魏) formed an alliance with King Wi (威王) of Je (齊), but later, King Wi broke this agreement. King Hye was outraged over this, and wanted to send an assassin to kill King Wi.  The ministers of the court considered it cowardly to send an assassin, so some suggested to wage war instead, and some suggested against it. In midst of this, Hwa-ja (華子) suggested just the thought of waging war itself is wrong.

Hwa-ja came forward to the King and spoke, “All these suggestions are not good. Anyone who points to people discussing these matters and regards them as people who are putting the country into a turmoil, are themselves people who are throwing the country into confusion.”

King felt frustrated and asked, “What do you suggest that we do, then?”

“We have to put aside quarrelsome arguments (是非) and stand on the side of the Way (道).”

The King drew a blank stare, and then the chancellor Hye-ja (惠子) called upon a sagacious person named Dae-jin-in (戴晉人) and had him stand in front of the king.  He first asked the king a question.

“Do you know what a snail is?”

“Yes, I do.”

“On its left horn is a country of Chok (觸氏; “pierce”) and, on its right is a country of Man (蠻氏; “barbaric”), and they were fighting each other to expand their territory. There were several tens of thousands of people dying. There were times when it took 15 days to just pursue fleeing enemies.”

The king was dumbfounded at this story, and Dae-jin-in asked another question.

“Do you think there’s an end to this world?” The king shook his head. Dae-jin-in continued.

“Then to those who ponder on this limitless world, the existence of these countries can only be trivial.”

He was basically saying that whether it’s the country of Wi, or the country of Je, they were both like countries on top of a snail’s horns from the perspective of someone whose mind ponder on great things such as the limitless universe.  Dae-jin-in asked this question and left the king.

“What difference are there between you, who is wondering whether or not to wage war against Je, and Chok and Man on the top of the snail horns?”

望洋之歎

原: 莊子, 秋水/1 中

望洋之歎 (망양지탄, wàng yáng zhī tàn, ぼうよう-したん), look / sea / [then] / sigh
Sighing after looking at a great sea. Admiring another’s greatness, and feeling shame over one’s shortcomings.

Long time ago, at a place called Maeng-jin (孟津) on the midstream of the Yellow River (黃河) lived a god (河神) named Ha-baek (河伯). He was impressed with the golden gleam of light reflecting from the river, and said, “There is no other body of water like this in this world.”

  A voice replied, “No, that’s not true.” Ha-baek turned his face to find an old turtle nearby, and asked.

  “Is there a body of water greater than the Yellow River?”

  “Yes. Near where the sun rises is the North Sea (北海, now known as 渤海), and it is said that all rivers flow into it. So, the breadth and width of that place is many times greater than the Yellow River.”

  Ha-baek shook his head in disbelief. He had never left Maeng-jin, and he couldn’t believe the words of this old turtle.

  “How could such a big body of water exist?  I can’t believe it unless I see it myself.”

  Then autumn came. The Yellow River rose very high due to many days of rain. While watching this, Ha-baek was suddenly reminded of his conversation with the old turtle, and decided to follow the river to see the North Sea himself.

  When Ha-baek reached North Sea, a god (海神) of that place named Yak (若) came out to greet him. He raised his hands and cut through the air to calm the waters, and before them was a horizon of water that stretched far beyond what Ha-baek had ever seen before.

  Ha-baek was taken aback by the breadth and width of what he was seeing, and his jaw dropped. He was ashamed of his past ignorance and said to Yak, “I heard of the greatness of North Sea, but did not believe it until now. If I did not see this here today, I could not have understood how little I had seen and known in life.”

  Yak smiled and said, “You were a frog in a small well, weren’t you? Without coming to know about the great sea (大海) you would’ve been recognized as a god with little knowledge of the world, but now you have managed to get yourself out of such place.”

鵬程萬里

原: 莊子, 逍遙遊/1 中

鵬程萬里 (붕정만리, péng chéng wànlǐ, ほうてい-ばんり) big bird / jouney / ten thousand / miles

A large bird travels ten thousand miles.

Jang-ja (莊子, 字: 周) of Taoist school (道家) during the Warring States period wrote the following narrative in his Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease (逍遙遊):

There is a large fish named Gon (鯤) living near a corner of the North Sea. It is not known how many ri (approx. a quarter mile) in length it is. It transforms into a bird called Bung (鵬). The size of Bung is also not known. When it spreads its wings to fly, it covers the clouds of the sky with its wings, and it stirs water of the sea. It can fly from one end of the North Sea to the other end of South Sea in one breath. According to a story by Jehae (齊諧) it rides over the whirlwind of 3,000 ri and travels 90,000 ri without a rest, and then folds its wings in to take a rest.

Jang-ja had envisioned a world where both nature and self become one in harmony (物我一體). He had mentioned this bird to metaphorically describe the appearance of a great person who moves around in the freedom of an ideal world that goes beyond the mundane.

From the mention of this, we have words like bung-gon (鵬鯤), or gon-bung (鯤鵬) which signifies something large that is beyond what anyone can imagine. And bung-bae (鵬背: the back of Bung), or bung-ik (鵬翼: the wing of Bung) are used to refer to anything that is very large. Bung-ik is often used to describe airplanes. And words like bung-bak (鵬搏: the flapping of Bung’s wings), bung-bi (鵬飛: the flying of Bung), bung-geo (鵬擧: the rousing of Bung) all describes an act or spirit of achieving something with a great effort or initiative. Bung-do (鵬圖: the picture of Bung) means a great plan or aspiration.

人無遠慮 必有近憂

原: 論語, 衛靈公
子曰:「人無遠慮,必有近憂。」

人無遠慮 必有近憂 (인무원려 필유근우,rén wúyuǎnlǜ bì yǒu jìn yōu,ひとぶえんりょしんゆうきんゆう)
If a person does not think far ahead, then he will inevitably experience worries nearby.

This is similar to a saying, “One ought to think deeply of what may happen in the future (深謀遠慮)” from The Critique of Jin (過秦論), an essay written by Ga-eui (賈誼).

Related to this saying, there is a Korean narrative about a civil official (文臣) named Heo Jong (許琮) during the reign of King Seong-jong (成宗) of Joseon dynasty. The Queen Consort was found to be temperamental and was eventually deposed. (She is known as the Deposed Queen Yun (廢妃 尹氏) to this day in Korea.) With the increased pressure from officials, she was later sentenced to death by poisoning. In order to draft this decree to poison (賜死) the deposed Queen, King Seong-jong had summoned all court officials (群臣會議). Heo Jong was a Right Minister (右贊成) at the time, so he had to attend the meeting as well.

While on his way to the royal court, he visited his older sister’s house, and his sister said to him, “How could anyone attend a meeting to poison the Queen? I’m troubled by this. If, at a commoner’s house, the servants gathered to participate in the poisoning of the lady of the house, and her son becomes the head of the household later, what would happen to those servants? How could there be no trouble in the future for them?” He came to realize this, and while passing a bridge, he intentionally fell from the bridge. He excused himself from the meeting due to injuries, and returned home.

Just as his sister had predicted, when King Yeonsan (燕山君) came into power and found out about his mother’s death, he unleashed his wrath against all those involved in the infamous purge of 1504 (甲子士禍). Since then, people started calling that bridge, from which Heo Jong fell, “The Bridge where Heo Jong Fell (琮琛橋)”.

A marker stone over where the bridge was stands in front of Se-yang Building, in Jongro-gu Naeja-dong, Seoul

創業守成

原: 唐書, 房玄齡傳; 觀政要, 君道; 資治通鑑, 等等

創業守成 (창업수성,chuàngyè shǒuchéng,そうぎょう-しゅせい) start [of] work, maintain or protect / act of
Short form of 易創業難守成, which means the start of a work is easy, but maintaining it is difficult.

During a chaotic time, near the end of Su (隋) dynasty, Yi Yeon (李淵) and Yi Se-min (李世民), who were father and son, raised an army to defeat Emperor Gong (恭帝) of Su and founded the Tang (唐) dynasty in 618 AD.

In 626, King Tae-jong (太宗), named Yi Se-min, succeeded his father, King Go-jo (高祖), named Yi Yeon, and ushered in an age of great prosperity (盛世) under the era name of Jeong-gwan (貞觀之治, 627-649). He unified the country, expanded the territory, guarded against extravagance, stabilized the economy, recruited talents from abroad, and helped to develop the academia and the culture of the country. He became the model king for subsequent kings to follow.

Such Jeong-gwan rule was possible not only because of King Tae-jong’s abilities, but around him were wise retainers such as Du Yeo-hui (杜如晦) who was known for his decisiveness; Bang Hyeon-ryeong (房玄齡), recognized for his planning skills; and Wi Jing (魏徵), known for his upright character.

One day, King Tae-jong asked his retainers, “Between starting a business, and maintaining that business, which is more difficult?”
Bang Hyeon-ryeong replied, “Starting a business can only be achieved by only successful person among many rival leaders that spring up everywhere, so I would say starting is more difficult.”
Wi Jing gave a different reply, “From the old days, the position of a monarch is finally obtained after going through much hardships, however it is easily lost in complacency. Therefore, I think protecting and maintaining is more difficult.”
King Tae-jong nodded, and said, “Duke Bang had to risk his own life with me to gain the whole world, and that’s why he said starting a work is more difficult. Duke Wi has always been cautious against pride and extravagance for the prosperity and the welfare of people (國泰民安), and also against complacency which causes calamity and chaos (禍亂). And that’s why he has said protecting and maintaining is more difficult. Since the difficulties of a start has come to an end, I shall now focus on maintaining with you.”

傷時歌

As recorded in the Royal Annals of Joseon dynasty, June 19, 1625:

傷時歌

嗟爾勳臣
毋庸自誇
爰處其窓
乃占其田
且乘其馬
又行其事
爾與其人
顧何異哉

Lamentation over the current state of affairs

We lament over thee, royal officials
Do not boast about yourselves
You live in their houses
You took over their lands
You ride on their horses
You do what they did
[Between] you and them
[Looking over] what difference are there?