原: 孔子家語, 三恕/4 中

有坐之器 (유좌지기,yǒuzuòzhīqì,ゆうざの-き), nearby [of] bowl
Moderation in all things. Heart should not be emptied nor be overflowing.

Gong-ja was visiting an ancestral shrine (祠堂) of Hwan-gong (桓公) of the country of Ju (周). Inside was a bowl (儀器) used in ritual ceremonies, and it was fixed in a way so that it could tilt freely. Gong-ja asked the keeper of the shrine, “What is this bowl for?”  And he replied, “It is a bowl you always look at nearby (有坐之器)”  At this, Gong-ja nodded and said, “I did hear about the bowl. It tilts to the side if it’s empty, and it stands upright only if it has just enough water, and if it’s completely filled, it would spill over.”


原: 武信君 蒯通傳, 史記, 後漢書 等等
金城湯池 (금성탕지,jīnchéng tāngchí,きんじょうとうち), metal fortress boiling pond
A word to refer to an impregnable place or thing

Emperor Si-hwang (始皇帝) of Jin (秦) had unified the kingdoms, but it started to decline soon after his death. The families (宗室) and those who had served (遺臣) in old kingdoms rose up to overthrow Jin. Many claimed to be a king in their own right, and the governing system of Jin (郡縣制) was being dismantled completely. It was during this time a man named Mu-sin (武信) had subdued the old territory of Jo (趙) and people called him Lord Mu-sin (武信君). Koi-tong (蒯通), an unappointed advisor (論客), saw all this take place, and told Seo-gong (徐公), a ruler (縣令) of Beom-yang (范陽), that the disgruntled people under his rule are about to rise up against him. Seo-gong asked what Koi-tong had in mind, and Koi-tong said that he will go to Lord Mu-sin and convince him that he should make a good example of how someone who surrenders to him would be treated by accepting your surrender, and treating you with extremely generosity. The logic was that if Seo-gong surrendered and he was treated poorly, other fortresses with become even more impregnable (金城湯池) in defending their places. So, that way, Lord Mu-sin will not suffer loss of war, and others will see how you were treated, and instead of suffering great losses themselves, they will find that it’s better to surrender. Seo-gong sent Koi-tong to Lord Mu-shin.  Lord-Mushin, amazed at the wisdom of Koi-tong, invited Seo-gong with the utmost respect and had him go abroad to tell people of this. People of Beom-yang was spared from a war, so they praised Seo-gong, and other regions hearing of this also surrendered to Lord Mu-sin.  It is said that over 30 fortresses had surrendered in the region of Hwa-buk (華北) alone.


原: 春秋左傳, 哀公, 哀公十一年/2 中

良禽擇木(양금택목,liáng qín zé mù,りょうきんたくぼく), good bird chooses tree

A wise person chooses a person or a place that recognizes and will help to cultivate his talents.

While Gong-ja (孔子) was staying in the country of Wi (衛) Gongmun-ja (孔文子, 孔圉) came to inquire him about his plans to attack Dae-suk-jil (大叔疾), but Gong-ja replied that he has learned about ancestral rites, but he know nothing about waging wars. Immediately, after, he told his disciples to get ready to leave Wi soon. Hearing about this, Gongmun-ja quickly came back to explain he didn’t have other ulterior motives and pleaded him to stay. At this, Gong-ja decided to stay longer, but a person from the country of Noh (魯) came to implore him to come back and he went back to his home country.

Before taking on a job to work for any company, or stay at any place, it’s a worthwhile effort to consider what type of place it is. If it’s a rotten tree that will fall by itself soon, or if it’s a small branch that won’t be able to withstand the weight of your nest, then it’s better not to settle down from the start.


原: 論語, 八佾/8

繪事後素(회사후소,huìshìhòusù,かいじこうそ), painting work after white
Horse before carriage. Essentials or canvas come first before formalities or decorations.

This is from a passage where Gong-ja reminds his disciples that a person ought to develop his character first before adding on other stylistic things (文飾).

Jaha (字: 子夏, 卜商) asked, “What does this text mean? ‘Dimples from a beautiful smile are pretty, pupils from beautiful eyes are clear. It is like painting with white silk (素以爲絢).'” Gong-ja (孔子) replied, “You paint after you prepare a white canvas (繪事後素).” To which, Jaha asked again, “So etiquettes/formalities (禮) come after?” And at this, Gong-ja expressed his great pleasure with Jaha’s reply and said that he is now ready to discuss poetry (詩).

Jaha realized that formalities (depicted as a painting (絢)) are expressions of the heart (depicted as a white canvas (素)), and the principle of poetry is the same. This is why Gong-ja praised his reply, and considered him ready to discuss poetry.

The mainstream interpretation of this was reinforced by Zhu-ja (朱子, 朱熹, 1130-1200) of Song (宋) dynasty, but a different interpretation was given earlier during later Han (漢) dynasty by Jung Hyeon (鄭玄, 127-200) who read this as painting white (素) after painting with colors (繪), so as to filling in the spaces between colors with white.


原: 列子, 湯問


愚公移山(우공이산,yúgōngyíshān,ぐこういざん), Wu-gong moves mountains
No matter how difficult, it can be done with persistence and diligence

There lived a 90-year old man named Wu-gong (愚公) whose residence was between two tall mountains, Mt. Tae-haeng (太行山) and Mt. Wang-ok (王玉山). He’s always found it difficult to travel to and fro other towns, so he gathered his family members to discuss creating a level road all the way to Ye-ju (豫州) and south of Han-su (漢水). However, his wife objected saying how an old man like him would be able to remove the dirt from the mountain and where to put the dirt, and to this, he replied nonchalantly, “I’ll just dump it in the Bohai Sea (渤海).”

Soon, Wu-gong with his three sons and grandsons started working. It was no easy task, since the travel to dump dirt at Bohai Sea would take a year. One day, an old friend Ji-su (智叟) tried to persuade Wu-gong to stop the work because of the age. To this, Wu-gong simply replied that his sons will carry out the work, and then his grandsons, and then later generations will continue the work until two mountains disappear. Ji-su went away shaking his head, however, the mountain spirit (蛇神) guarding those two mountains were shocked to hear this, and reported this to the Jade Emperor (玉皇上帝, aka God of Heaven). He was moved by Wu-gong’s persistence, and ordered to relocate Mt. Tae-haeng to Sak-dong (朔東) and Mt. Wang-ok to Ong-nam (雍南).

(蛇足: This is why they say there used to be two mountains in Gi-ju (冀州) but nowadays, there is not even a small hill there.)


原: 論語, 里仁/15

原: 論語, 衛靈公/3

一以貫之(일이관지), one [/with] through/[threaded] — understanding many through one or a grand principle

From Yi-in (里仁): Gong-ja (孔子) said, “Sam (參, 曾子), my way is through only one thing.” To which, Jeung-ja  (曾子) replied, “Yes, indeed.” After Gong-ja left the room, literati (門人) asked Sam what the master meant. Jeung-ja answered, “My master’s way is only of faithfulness (忠, as being wholehearted) and compassion (恕, as in compassionate understanding of others).”

From Wi-ryeong-gong (衛靈公): Gong-ja asked Sa (賜, 字: 子貢), “Do you see me as someone learned in many things, and be able to recall them well?” Ja-gong (子貢) replied, “Yes, are you not?” Gong-ja answered, “No, I merely see all things through one.”

It’s debatable as to what this penetrating through one thing (一以貫之) may truly mean, but one way to understand this is that, as already mentioned, faithfulness and compassion is a mere way to achieve this, and looking through the greater context it’s only natural to interpret humaneness (仁) as the way (道) through which all things can be reflected on.


原:  孔子家語, 三恕/10

子曰: 由!是倨倨者何也?夫江始出於岷山,其源可以濫觴 …

濫觴 (남상), [enough to] run over a small glass [for liquor]

A warning to disciple, Jaro (仲由, 字: 子路), who once showed off a fancy dress. Gong-ja (孔子) reminded him that the source of a great river Yang-ja (楊子江) is no more than enough to run over a small glass.

갚아야 할 빚만 있는 삶

인생의 추억의 안개속 뒤를 바라보면

빚진 것 밖에는 보이지 않네

무관심속에 결핵과 영양실조로 죽었어야 할 인생이었고

십자가의 은혜도 채험하지 못하다 방황하다 죽었을 인생이었으나

내가 무엇이라고 이리도 넘치고 넘치는 큰 은혜를 받았단 말인가

배푼 은혜보다 받은 은혜가 더 많았고

줄 수 있었던 기회가 없던 사람들에게 선물과 축복을 받았으니

지금의 오해들 쯤이야

지금의 외로움 쯤이야

지금의 따분한 쯤이야

얼마든지 참고 갈 수 있으리

그들에게 빚을 다시 갚으리

받은 은혜보다 받은 축복보다

몇십배 몇백배 다시 배풀어 줄려면

지금보다 몇십배 몇백배 더 부지런히 살아 열매를 맺어야 하네

아브라함과의 언약

On the salvific economy of God according to His eternal covenants

느부갓네살왕을 봐도 일시적으로 하나님의 징계의 도구로 사용되었지만 최종적으로는 하나님의 언약의 사람들을 욕되게 한 벌을 받게 된다. 하나님께서 아브라함과 언약하신 대로였다. 하나님께서 영원하다 하며 맺은 언약이 (창 17:7) 영원한 것이지 하나님의 뜻을 이루기위해 일시적으로 도구로 사용하시는 것이 영원한 것은 아니다. 예수님도 말씀 그대로 이해한 것을 지금와서 선택적 해석법은 무엇인가? 비록 전통적으로 대체주의가 받아졌지만 성경말씀의 바른 이해의 기준위에 다시 바로 잡혀져야 한다고 생각된다. 대체주의가 독일 나치들의 유대인 학살을 합리화 시킨 제일 큰 원동력이었다. 그 참사를 이어 1948년 5월 14일의 기적은 사람의 뜻으로 된 것이 아니었고 성경에서 계속 약속하셨던 것들의 진행형 성취에 불과한데 이것도 무시하면 마치 하나님은 자신의 영원하신 약속을 어기는 하나님으로 만드는 이상한 짓에 해당되지않는가? 신약의 새로운 언약은 구약의 언약의 진행적인 성취로 봐야 한다고 생각한다. Heb 8:13 의 κατάρας ἐγγύς 또한 서서히 없어질 것에 대한 것을 언급하고 있다. 구약의 제사장들을 통한 희생을 요구하는 부분에 있는 것을 강조한다는 것은 12절에 죄에 대한 용서가 더 이상 구약의 언약에 바탕을 둔 희생이 아니라 그리스도의 희생을 통한 새언약에 바탕을 둔 것을 의미하고 있는 것이다. 그리스도의 희생은 완벽한 희생이지만 13절을 완성형으로 잘못 이해한 중점으로 대체주의로 이끌어가는 것은 위험하다고 생각된다. 이스라엘과 그리스도의 몸된 교회의 관계에서는 아직 예수님의 재림과 함께 아직 이루실 것들 많이 남아있다. 사도 바울의 경고 또한 잊으면 않된다. 그의 신학원리에서도 이방인 교회는 접목된 지체에 불과하다. 그래서, 이 부분에서는 예수를 메시야로 받아드린 유대인들의 이해가 제일 성경적인 이해라 말할 수 있다. 유대인들에게 큰 반감을 가졌던 캅바도키아 교부들을 포함한 이방인 초기 기독교인들은 너무나도 쉽게 대체신학을 형성하였다. 당연히 그리스도 안에서는 새로운 피조물이지만, 이것을 대체적인 의미까지로 적용되는 것은 성격에서 적용하는 범위 밖으로 나간 것으로 봐야 한다. 정통적으로 고집해 왔던 신학원리가 비성경적이라면 끼워 맞추기로 해석학을 적용하지는 말고 이 부분에 있어서는 몸통과 가지는 바르게 구분해야 된다고 생각된다.

너를 축복하는 자에게는 내가 복을 내리고 너를 저주하는 자에게는 내가 저주하리니 땅의 모든 족속이 너로 말미암아 복을 얻을 것이라 하신지라 – 창세기 12:3